我沒有要人家翻譯的意思，因為這雖然不難的樣子，但是翻譯起來怪怪的，雖然說多少看的懂，但是就是卡在關鍵字，有很多單字不認識是真的，而且翻起來就是不順暢，只要告訴我這兩段大概在講些什麼就好了。謝謝！|y12| |y12| |
The term syllabus, however, is less frequently used in process-based methods, in which considerations of language content are often secondary. Counseling-Learning, for example, has no language syllabus as such. Neither linguistic matter nor subject matter is specified in advance. Learners select content for themselves by choosing topic they want to take about. These are then translated into the target language and used as the basis for interaction and language practice. To find out what linguistic content had in fact been generated and practiced during a course organized according to Counseling-Learning principles, it would be necessary to record the lessons and later determine what items of language had been covered. This would be an a posteriori approach to syllabus specification; that is, the syllabus would be determined from examining lesson protocols. With such methods as the Silent Way and Total Physical Response, an examination of lesson protocols, teacher’s manuals, and texts derived from them reveals that the syllabuses underlying these methods are traditional lexico-grammatical syllabuses. In both there is a strong emphasis on grammar and grammatical accuracy.
Much of the criticism of Audiolingualism came from the recognition of the very limited roles available to learners in audio-lingual methodology. Learners were seen as stimulus-response mechanisms whose learning was a direct result of repetitive practice. Newer methodologies customarily exhibit more concern for learner roles and for variation among learners. Johnson and Paulston(1976) spell out learner roles in an individualized approach to language learning in the following terms: (a) Learners plan their own learning program and thus ultimately assume responsibility for what they do in the classroom; (b) Learners monitor and evaluate their own progress; (c) Learners are members of a group and learn by interacting with others; (d) Learners tutor other learners; (e) Learners learn from the teacher, from other students, and from other teaching sources. Counseling-Learning views learners as having roles that change developmentally, and Curran(1976) uses an ontogenetic metaphor to suggest this development. He divides the developmental process into five stages, extending from total dependency on the teacher in stage 1 to total independence in stage 5. These learner stages Curran see as parallel to the growth of a child from embryo to independent adulthood, passing through childhood and adolescence.
[ 本帖最後由 linyongjin 於 2007-5-21 17:54 編輯 ]